“Diversifying our metal supply sources, monitoring and auditing our products according to customer needs, finding the most efficient delivery routes to reduce delivery times, collaborating in documentation and providing required documents, holding continuous meetings with customers, and providing information are all measures we take in stakeholder management.”
Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals). This led to very early human use in several regions, from circa 8000 BC. Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, circa 5000 BC; the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC; and the first metal to be purposely alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. Copper is one of the oldest commodities in the world. Although the material has been known for the last 10,000 years, copper only became a tradable commodity in stock markets during the late 19th century. Copper has many applications, mainly in the electronic industry and in the agricultural and machinery fields.
Copper has played a key role in technology for thousands of years and continues to do so in today’s industrial expansion. Its wide range of uses makes it a popular commodity to trade. Copper has so many industrial uses. It’s an efficient conductor of energy — namely heat and electricity. It would be difficult to imagine building any significant industrial infrastructure without it.
Copper will be one of the most easily tradable commodities during the next 20 years. This is due to the strong demand from rapidly industrializing countries like China and India, where copper plays a main role in the construction industry. It is expected that the demand for copper will rise.
The major applications of copper are electrical wire (60%), roofing and plumbing (20%), and industrial machinery (15%). Copper is used mostly as a pure metal, but when greater hardness is required, it is put into such alloys as brass and bronze (5% of total use). Primary Uses of copper and its alloys are Electrical wiring, plumbing fixtures, transportation equipment, electric equipment, electronics, consumer products and industrial equipment. Copper is the world’s third most-used metal after iron and aluminum. According to Statista, most of the world’s copper is used in electrical applications, but also in architecture, automotive, electrical, tube, pipe and fittings, fuel gas, industrial, marine, machined products, and telecommunications.
In 2021, global refined copper usage stood at nearly 25.3 million metric tons. This was the record high reported since 2010.
Copper cathode is a primary raw material used in semi-fabricated products such as copper wire rods for the wire and cable industry. Copper is a crucial raw material used in electrification and clean energy infrastructure and is essential for the transition to a low-carbon economy.
Copper plays an important role in the global economy and the important actors of this scene, by supplying products and buying and selling them in the global markets, have an effect on the promotion of the economy of their country and the development of the industry at the international level.
The trade of copper as a fundamental and valuable metal with its numerous and diverse roles in the industry has a great impact on the world markets, and suppliers and producers of copper products respond to the market’s needs by developing and increasing their production levels.
Traders and businessmen active in this market from the supply of concentrated soil to basic products such as copper cathode, wire, as well as final products such as cables, tubes, pipes and fittings, etc., has the role as link between the source point and the final customer.
Aluminum is used in many industries worldwide. According to the US Geological Survey, some of the many uses for aluminum are in transportation (automobiles, airplanes, trucks, railcars, marine vessels, etc.), packaging (cans, foil, etc.), construction (windows, doors, siding, etc), consumer durables (appliances, cooking utensils, etc.), electrical transmission lines, machinery, and many other applications1.
In 2021, the largest use of aluminum was for automotive and transportation (29%), followed by construction (23%), foil and packaging (16%), electrical engineering and electronics (11%), machinery and equipment (7%), consumer goods (4%) and other applications (10%)
Aluminum is a silvery-colored metal that is never found on its own in nature. It is very light (about one third the weight of copper) yet strong; some alloys are even stronger than steel. Aluminum is both malleable (can be pressed into shape) and ductile (can be beaten and drawn into a wire)
Aluminum, as a light and non-rusting metal, has played an important role in industrial development with numerous and useful industrial properties. The growth and development of the use of this metal is considered as one of the indicators and parameters of industrial growth and development among countries. Aluminum is one of the most traded metals in the world. According to the International Aluminum Institute (IAI), the global aluminum industry shipped 64.3 million metric tons of primary aluminum in 2020.
The discovery of bauxite and alumina mines in different countries and its trade as a raw material for the production of aluminum and products derived from it became the basis for the development of the aluminum industry. Today, countries without having mines and raw materials invest and produce this metal, because their industrial growth and development is dependent on access and possession of this material. The aluminum industry is a global business. The top ten producing countries accounted for 85% of the world’s primary aluminum production in 2020. China was the largest producer of primary aluminum, followed by India, Russia, Canada, and the United Arab Emirates.
Stainless steels are highly valued for their corrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Adding molybdenum increases the corrosion resistance of stainless steels against reducing acids and against corrosion in chloride solutions. For this reason, there are different types of stainless steel with different amounts of chromium and molybdenum to match the environment the alloy must withstand. Stainless steel’s resistance to corrosion and rust, low maintenance and high gloss make it an ideal material for many applications where both high strength and high corrosion resistance are required.
Stainless steel manufacturing process involves melting scrap metals and additives in an electric furnace, casting the molten alloy into specific shapes, hot rolling the semi-finished steel to reduce and uniform the thickness, heat treating or annealing the steel to reduce internal stresses and soften or harden the metal, and descaling the steel to remove any scale or build-up caused by the heat treatment. The process may vary depending on the grade and desired appearance of the stainless steel.
Stainless steel is used in a variety of industries, including construction, automobile assembly, chemical processing, piping, and pollution control, to name a few. In 2021, the mechanical engineering industry segment utilized around 29 percent of the stainless steel produced worldwide. In the same year, the electrical machinery industry accounted for 20 percent of global stainless-steel usage
The global stainless steel market size was valued at USD 195.65 billion in 2021. The market is projected to grow from USD 204.17 billion in 2022 to USD 298.85 billion in 2029, exhibiting a CAGR of 5.6% during the forecast period.
Stainless steel is made in the form of sheet, plate, rod, wire and pipe, and is used in kitchen utensils, cutlery, surgical instruments, large household appliances; Building materials, industrial equipment (for example, in paper factories, chemical plants, water treatment plants); and water storage tanks and tanks of chemicals and food products (for example, chemical tankers and tanker trucks) should be used. Good corrosion resistance, ease of cleaning and sterilization with steam and no need for surface coating have made the use of stainless steel common in commercial and industrial kitchens.
The value of the global stainless-steel market in 2019 was estimated at $111.4 billion and is expected to reach $182.1 billion by 2027 with a compound annual growth rate of 6.3%. China is the largest producer and consumer of the products. Stainless steel is worldwide due to growing industries such as automotive, construction and consumer goods.
Ferroalloys are used in the production of steels and alloys. They are added to steel to improve properties like strength, ductility, and fatigue or corrosion resistance. Some applications of ferroaluminum include the deoxidation of steel, hard facing applications, reducing agent, thermite reactions, AlNiCo magnets, and alloying additions to welding wires and fluxes
Ferroalloys are iron alloys with a high percentage of one or more components such as manganese (Mn), aluminum (Al), or silicon (Si). Some common types of ferroalloys include ferromanganese, ferrosilicon, ferrochromium, ferrovanadium, ferrotungsten, ferromolybdenum, and ferrotitanium.
Ferroalloys are traded internationally and are used in the steel manufacturing industry. More than 85% of ferroalloys produced are used in the steel manufacturing industry. The term ferro-alloys means special iron alloys combined with other elements that are added to the metal bath on machining and refining stainless steel to introduce and correct the elements necessary to obtain the value you wish for all the elements composing the alloy
The global ferroalloys market was estimated at USD 154.98 billion in 2020 and is projected to reach USD 187.14 billion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 6.10% in the forecast period of 2023-2028. Ferroalloy refers to various iron alloys with a high percentage of one or more components such as manganese (Mn), aluminum (Al), or silicon (Si)
Ferrosilicon is one of the main alloys used in steel production and iron smelting. This substance is produced in regeneration furnaces from quartz, iron ore, coal or other organic products with a high content of coal or coke.
Ferrosilicon is mainly used in the production of industrial tools. Therefore, it is natural that the countries producing this type of tool need a high volume of ferrosilicon. In this way, it is better for the countries that produce Ferrosilicon to export part of their production to these countries. The main export of Ferrosilicon in the world is in the hands of three countries: Russia, China and Malaysia. Of course, until the last few years, China was considered the main exporter of Ferrosilicon in the world. But today, with Russia entering the competition market, China’s share is less than before. The main buyers of Ferrosilicon are exporting countries such as America, India, Japan and South Korea.